While PI provides tremendous opportunities, it also presents a significant challenge for process engineers, as they have to handle a steadily increasing portfolio of options during process synthesis, as well as the design of highly integrated process configurations. As conveniently summarized by Gourdon “Not only the process has to be intensified but also the process design methodology”. Consequently, PI requires a systematic extension of current process synthesis and modelling methods to exploit this broadened range of driving forces and the new structural building blocks for process design and integration. Yet, it is not only an extension of the scope that is required, but also an increase in efficiency, which allows for an evaluation of classical and intensified options without an extensive increase in time and resources. Consequently, computationally efficient and reliable tools have to be developed to support process engineers in generating and evaluating competing process concepts under consideration of PI options on the process and equipment level. Furthermore, such tools are required to effectively enable an early-stage evaluation of improvement potential of innovative developments on the molecular and phase & transport level, considering their impact on the overall process performance. As for separation processes, the choice of mass separating agents (MSA), heat and mass integration and process configurations should be considered in an overall process synthesis and design approach.