IWWG Experts Forum on

Contact: Alessandra Polettini



The pHOENIX working group was established in March 2002 following efforts made by Prof. Peter Lechner from BOKU University, Vienna to create an international network focusing on issues related to waste combustion residues (e.g., from MSW). In 2003 the working group became one of the task groups set up by the International Waste Working Group (IWWG).
Thermal waste-to-energy treatment of MSW constitutes an essential part of integrated waste management contributing to the multiple targets of maximizing recycling, improving energy recovery from non-recyclable waste fractions and reducing environmental impacts from final disposal of residual waste. In modern municipal solid waste incinerators flue gas cleaning systems have been implemented to comply with the progressively stringent air emission criteria. Further improvement of gas cleaning technologies will presumably lead to future reductions in allowed air emissions. As a result, solid residues from incineration account for the major emission route of the process, rendering identification of appropriate management strategies for such materials crucial in the overall environmental profile of a waste incinerator.
The main objective of the pHOENIX group was to exchange and share information on various aspects related to management of waste incinerator residues, spanning from advanced characterization of materials using lab- and field-scale observations, modelling of reaction and transport of contaminants under different environmental scenarios, to identification of suitable utilization options and understanding of environmentally sustainable disposal strategies with particular focus on long-term leaching, expected physical and mineralogical changes and eco-toxicological aspects.
Over the years the scope of pHOENIX has broadened from MSWI residues to include residues from different types of waste-to-energy installations, in view of the similar mechanisms underlying their environmental behaviour.


The pHOENIX group includes 18 individuals from 7 European countries.

  • L. Andreas, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
  • T. Astrup, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
  • G. Cappai, University of Cagliari, Italy
  • A. De Boom, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
  • H. Ecke, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
  • J.B. Hansen, DHI Water & Environment, Denmark
  • A. Heindl, FES Rednitzhembach, Germany
  • S. Heuss-Assbichler, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Germany
  • O. Hjelmar, DHI Water&Environment, Denmark
  • P. Lechner, BOKU University of Vienna, Austria
  • P. Mostbauer, BOKU University of Vienna, Austria
  • A. Muntoni, University of Cagliari, Italy
  • A. Polettini, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy
  • R. Pomi, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy
  • H.A. van der Sloot, Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN), Netherlands
  • T. van Gerven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
  • A. van Zomeren, Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN), Netherlands
  • E. Wall, Ragnsells, Sweden

Contact person:

Alessandra Polettini, PhD
University of Rome "La Sapienza", Faculty of Engineering,
Department of Hydraulics, Transportation and Roads
Phone: +39 06 44585037
Fax: +39 06 44585037
E-mail: alessandra.polettini(at)uniroma1(dot)it