Generation and Optimization of Real-Time Code for Embedded Multiprocess and Multiprocessor Systems (E = Mp2)

Fact Sheet

AcronymE = Mp2
NameGeneration and Optimization of Real-Time Code for Embedded Multiprocess and Multiprocessor Systems
(in German: Generierung und Optimierung von Echtzeitfähigem Code für Eingebettete Multiprozess- und Multiprozessor-Systeme)
Role of TUHHApplicant
Start Date01/02/2012
End Date30/09/2017
Funds DonorDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)


During the design of safety-critical real-time systems like, e.g., airbag or flight attitude controllers, their behavior is specified at a high abstraction level. Compilers are an indispensible tool on the way from such a model-based specification to an actual implementation. For singlecore and singleprocess systems, compilers have recently been extended to support real-time properties already during compilation. For multiprocess and multiprocessor systems, compilers currently lack such a support despite of the increasing relevance of such parallel systems.

E = Mp2 aims to provide a software development environment for multiprocess and multiprocessor systems which produces efficient and optimized program code that provably meets real-time constraints. For this purpose, it has to be clarified how compiler and scheduler of an operating system need to cooperate. In addition, novel timing models supporting response times of processes and schedulability of entire systems need to be developed. Based on these timing models, novel compiler optimizations targeting on worst-case timing aspects and schedulability are designed.

In multiprocess systems, tasks can preempt each other and thus interfere. E = Mp2 develops compiler optimizations considering such context switches and scheduling strategies. In multiprocessor systems, different cores can access shared resources (e.g., buses or memories) at the same time and thus can cause additional interference. Therefore, this project works on compiler optimizations minimizing the worst-case timing of such systems by considering accesses to shared resources.

E = Mp2 Publications of the Embedded Systems Design Group

Title: Reconciling Compilation and Timing Analysis. <em>Advances in Real-Time Systems</em>
Written by: Heiko Falk, Peter Marwedel and Paul Lokuciejewski
in: March (2012).
Volume: Number:
on pages: 145-170
Chapter: 7
Editor: In S. Chakraborty and J. Ebersp&auml;cher (Eds.)
Publisher: Springer:
ISBN: 10.1007/978-3-642-24349-3_7
how published: 12-80 FML12 Springer

Note: hfalk, ESD, emp2, WCC

Abstract: Timing constraints must be respected for embedded real-time applications. Traditionally, compilers are unable to use precise estimates of execution times for optimization, and timing properties of code are derived after compilation. A number of design iterations are required if timing constraints are not met. We propose to reconcile compilers and timing analysis and to create a worst-case execution time (WCET) aware compiler in this way. Such WCET-aware compilers can exploit precise WCET information during compilation. This way, they are able to improve the code quality. Also, we may be able to avoid some of the design iterations.<br /> In this chapter, we describe the integration of a compiler and a WCET analyzer, yielding our WCET-aware compiler WCC. We are then reconsidering standard compiler optimizations for their potential to reduce the WCET, assuming that the WCET is now used as the cost function. Considered optimizations include function inlining, loop unrolling, loop unswitching, register allocation, scratchpad memory allocation, and cache partitioning. For a set of benchmarks, average WCET reductions of up to 40% were observed. The results indicate that this new area of research has the potential of achieving worthwhile execution time reductions for real-time code.