C3 Optimisation of mechanical properties of coated particles for improved kinetic energy absorption


The research of granular materials to increase the collision safety of ships is continued in this project. Expanded glass granules (Poraver) have proven to be particularly suitable due to their chemical and physical properties. However, the abrasive behavior of the Poraver particles under dynamic loads is disadvantageous for the application examined.

Figure 1: Poraver particles (left) tested in a tubular mixing machine at 72 rpm for one hour. The powder formation (right), leads to reduction in the energy absorption capability.

One way to overcome these problems is to coat the particles using fluidized bed spray granulation process. The coating material is subjected to the same requirements in terms of environmental friendliness, density, etc. as the granules themselves.

Figure 2: Candelilla wax coated Poraver® particle.


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alexander Düster,  Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Stefan Heinrich

Methods und Work program

Figure 3: Overview of Project C3.


  • Orth, M., Rotter, S., Safdar, W., Tasdemir, S., Pietsch-Braune, S., Heinrich, S., Düster, A. (2023): Fluidized Bed Spray Coating for Improved Mechanical Properties of Particles. In: Processes 11, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020314.
  • Dosta, M. and Skorych, V. (2020). MUSEN: An open-source framework for GPU-accelerated DEM simulations. In: SoftwareX, p. 100618.
  • Kraus S., Woitzik C.,  Dosta M., Düster A. (2021): Simulation of granular materials with the discrete element method to investigate their suitability as crash-absorber in ship collisions. In: PAMM 21.1 (2021), e202100036. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pamm.202100036.