|Title: Spatio-temporal deep learning models for tip force estimation during needle insertion|
|Written by: N. Gessert and T. Priegnitz and T. Saathoff and S.-T. Antoni and D. Meyer and M. F. Hamann and K.-P. Jünemann and C. Otte and A. Schlaefer|
|in: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery May 2019|
Abstract: Precise placement of needles is a challenge in a number of clinical applications such as brachytherapy or biopsy. Forces acting at the needle cause tissue deformation and needle deflection which in turn may lead to misplacement or injury. Hence, a number of approaches to estimate the forces at the needle have been proposed. Yet, integrating sensors into the needle tip is challenging and a careful calibration is required to obtain good force estimates.