|Title: Skin Lesion Classification Using CNNs with Patch-Based Attention and Diagnosis-Guided Loss Weighting|
|Written by: N. Gessert and T. Sentker and F. Madesta and R. Schmitz and H. Kniep and I. Baltruschat and R. Werner and A. Schlaefer|
|in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2019|
|on pages: Accepted|
Abstract: Objective: This work addresses two key problems of skin lesion classification. The first problem is the effective use of high-resolution images with pretrained standard architectures for image classification. The second problem is the high class imbalance encountered in real-world multi-class datasets. Methods: To use high-resolution images, we propose a novel patch-based attention architecture that provides global context between small, high-resolution patches. We modify three pretrained architectures and study the performance of patch-based attention. To counter class imbalance problems, we compare oversampling, balanced batch sampling, and class-specific loss weighting. Additionally, we propose a novel diagnosis-guided loss weighting method which takes the method used for ground-truth annotation into account. Results: Our patch-based attention mechanism outperforms previous methods and improves the mean sensitivity by 7%. Class balancing significantly improves the mean sensitivity and we show that our diagnosis-guided loss weighting method improves the mean sensitivity by 3% over normal loss balancing. Conclusion: The novel patch-based attention mechanism can be integrated into pretrained architectures and provides global context between local patches while outperforming other patch-based methods. Hence, pretrained architectures can be readily used with high resolution images without downsampling. The new diagnosis-guided loss weighting method outperforms other methods and allows for effective training when facing class imbalance. Significance: The proposed methods improve automatic skin lesion classification. They can be extended to other clinical applications where high-resolution image data and class imbalance are relevant.