Title: The design, physical properties and clinical utility of an iris collimator for robotic radiosurgery
Written by: G. G. Echner and W. Kilby and M. Lee and E. Earnst and S. Sayeh and A. Schlaefer and B. Rhein and J. R. Dooley and C. Lang and O. Blanck and E. Lessard and C. R. Maurer Jr and W. Schlegel
in: Phys Med Biol 2009
Volume: 54 Number: 18
on pages: 5359-5380
how published:
DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/54/18/001
PMID: 19687567

[doi] [BibTex] [pmid]


Abstract: Robotic radiosurgery using more than one circular collimator can improve treatment plan quality and reduce total monitor units (MU). The rationale for an iris collimator that allows the field size to be varied during treatment delivery is to enable the benefits of multiple-field-size treatments to be realized with no increase in treatment time due to collimator exchange or multiple traversals of the robotic manipulator by allowing each beam to be delivered with any desired field size during a single traversal. This paper describes the Iris variable aperture collimator (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which incorporates 12 tungsten-copper alloy segments in two banks of six. The banks are rotated by 30 degrees with respect to each other, which limits the radiation leakage between the collimator segments and produces a 12-sided polygonal treatment beam. The beam is approximately circular, with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation in the 50% dose radius of <0.8% (corresponding to <0.25 mm at the 60 mm field size) and an rms variation in the 20-80% penumbra width of about 0.1 mm at the 5 mm field size increasing to about 0.5 mm at 60 mm. The maximum measured collimator leakage dose rate was 0.07%. A commissioning method is described by which the average dose profile can be obtained from four profile measurements at each depth based on the periodicity of the isodose line variations with azimuthal angle. The penumbra of averaged profiles increased with field size and was typically 0.2-0.6 mm larger than that of an equivalent fixed circular collimator. The aperture reproducibility is < or =0.1 mm at the lower bank, diverging to < or =0.2 mm at a nominal treatment distance of 800 mm from the beam focus. Output factors (OFs) and tissue-phantom-ratio data are identical to those used for fixed collimators, except the OFs for the two smallest field sizes (5 and 7.5 mm) are considerably lower for the Iris Collimator. If average collimator profiles are used, the assumption of circular symmetry results in dose calculation errors that are <1 mm or <1% for single beams across the full range of field sizes; errors for multiple non-coplanar beam treatment plans are expected to be smaller. Treatment plans were generated for 19 cases using the Iris Collimator (12 field sizes) and also using one and three fixed collimators. The results of the treatment planning study demonstrate that the use of multiple field sizes achieves multiple plan quality improvements, including reduction of total MU, increase of target volume coverage and improvements in conformality and homogeneity compared with using a single field size for a large proportion of the cases studied. The Iris Collimator offers the potential to greatly increase the clinical application of multiple field sizes for robotic radiosurgery

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