List of open topics (theses and student projects)

The following topics are available for M.Sc. theses and student projects. The M.Sc. theses and projects may be conducted in German or English language. B.Sc. topics may be derived from the M.Sc. topics upon request.

Feel free to propose your own ideas. Potential topics cover the whole range of engineering informatics, such as software applications for civil engineering (including databases), smart monitoring systems, construction robotics, embedded systems/wireless sensor networks, building information modeling, blockchain technology, structural control, Internet of Things (IoT), Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems, additive manufacturing, etc.

Note that typically, we will define a specific assignment together. It is important that you know what you want and what you like before you look for topics. Please read the frequently asked question #4 first.

Gas source localization using swarm robotics and nano-quadcopters Jan Stührenberg (
Coupling mobile robots and material-integrated sensor nodes for autonomous infrastructure inspection Mathias Worm (
Quantum sensing Professor Smarsly (
Formalizing model updates for wireless sensor networks in cognitive buildings Muhammad Ekbal Ahmad (
Checking of cooperative tasks in autonomous robotics Muhammad Ekbal Ahmad (
Verification of wireless sensor networks in cognitive buildings using UPPAAL Muhammad Ekbal Ahmad (
Structural health monitoring with imprecise information Muhammad Ekbal Ahmad (
Analysis of geometric representations in the IFC schema for additive manufacturing Patricia Peralta (
Sensitivity analysis of printing material with respect to variations in process parameters in additive manufacturing Patricia Peralta (
An explainable artificial intelligence model for smart structures Kosmas Dragos (
Design of a physics-based wireless sensing approach for cognitive buildings Kosmas Dragos (

Completed and ongoing theses/student projects

Quantification and optimization of the robustness of construction schedules [Methoden zur Quantifizierung und Optimierung der Robustheit von Bauablaufplänen] PhD thesis 2021
Design of a smart apartment building with special focus of digital, sustainable, and social aspects Master thesis 2021
Real-time detection, classification, and measurement of cracks using mobile robotic systems Master thesis 2021
Development of an LTE-based smart monitoring station for outdoor air quality control featuring secure over-the-air firmware updates Master thesis 2021
Communication networks of construction robot fleets based on multi-agent systems Student project 2021
Model-based localization of robotic systems using Robot Operation System Student project 2021
Detection and classification of construction defects using computer vision – status quo and potentials Student project 2021
Parameter study on the identification of design boundary criteria in discontinuity areas using artificial intelligence Master thesis 2021
Optimization of concrete printing processes using finite element analysis Student project 2021
Construction of a water quality monitoring system using LoRa technology and IoT-based devices Student project 2021
Development of an autonomous irrigation system based on IoT and Multi-agent systems Student project 2021
Multi-robot SLAM for autonomous building inspection Student project 2021
Evaluation of quality of service in wireless sensor networks for smart city applications Student project 2021
Explainable artificial intelligence in structural health monitoring: Interpretation methods Student project 2021
Technical review of blockchain and AI-based methods for privacy-preserving data exchange and analysis for smart building applications Student project 2021
Analysis of digital and holistic building concepts based on sustainability-oriented parameters by example of a single-family house [Analyse digitaler und holistischer Gebäudekonzepte anhand nachhaltig ausgerichteter Parameter am Beispiel eines Einfamilienhauses] Student project 2021
System-oriented analysis of communication options for interconnected construction sites Student project 2021
Construction process simulations of engineering structures using BIM models [Bauablaufsimulationen von Ingenieurbauwerken mithilfe von BIM-Modellen] Master thesis 2021
Fault-tolerant smart sensor nodes based on deep learning Student project 2021
Development of a low-cost nitrate sensor for environmental monitoring Student project 2021
Structured data exchange of building-physical component specifications through extension of the IFC standard Bachelor thesis 2021
Analysis of drone-based inspection techniques for flight path planning [Analyse drohnenbasierter Bauwerksinspektionsverfahren für die Flugroutenplanung] Bachelor thesis 2021
Sensing technologies for material behavior studies in concrete printing Master thesis 2021
Design and implementation of a smartphone application for remote control of shake tables Master thesis 2021
Enhancing the accuracy of the evaluation of thermal comfort using applications of smart monitoring station Master thesis 2021
A modular approach towards cost-efficient monitoring based on microcontrollers Master thesis 2021
ITS simulation platforms Student project 2021
Analysis of employer’s information requirement (EIR) and BIM execution plans (BEP) using the construction projects Edge Elbside and HAU 6 as examples [Analyse von Auftraggeber-Informations-Anforderungen (AIA) und BIM-Abwicklungsplänen (BAP) am Beispiel der Bauvorhaben Edge Elbside und HAU 6]1 Student project 2021
BIM in bridge construction – status quo, characteristics, and opportunities [BIM im Brückenbau – Status quo, Besonderheiten und Potenziale]1 Master thesis 2021
Interface analysis between BIM software and structural design software [Schnittstellenanalyse zwischen BIM-Modellierungs- und Tragwerksbemessungsprogrammen]1 Bachelor thesis 2021
BIM-to-Field – Value of BIM in construction by the example of different twin houses [BIM-to-Field – Mehrwerte von BIM im Rahmen von Bauausführungen am Beispiel verschiedener Doppelhäuser]1 Bachelor thesis 2021
Reinforcement concepts in 3D printing – current opportunities in manufacturing and execution processes [Bewehrungskonzepte im 3D-Druck – Aktuelle Potenziale in Herstellungs- und Ausführungsprozessen]1 Bachelor thesis 2021
Analysis of BIM-based construction planning processes using RIB iTWO [Analyse von Bauplanungsprozessen im Rahmen von BIM mithilfe der Software RIB iTWO]1 Bachelor thesis 2021
Analysis of communication processes using the BIM Collaboration Format (BCF) by the example of a family house [Analyse von Kommunikationsprozessen mithilfe des BIM Collaboration Formats (BCF) am Beispiel eines Einfamilienhauses]1 Bachelor thesis 2021
Comparison of 3D printing combined with different formwork concepts by example of a complex reinforced concrete structure [Vergleich von 3D-Druckverfahren in Kombination mit verschiedenen Schalungskonzepten am Beispiel eines komplexen Stahlbetonbauteils]1 Student project 2021
BIM opportunities in road construction by the example of the rehabilitation of the New Elbe Tunnel [Potenziale von BIM im Straßenbau am Beispiel der Sanierung des Neuen Elbtunnels]1 Bachelor thesis 2021
Data and process analysis in the context of BIM by example of the laser laboratory extension at the DESY research center in Hamburg-Bahrenfeld [Daten- und Prozessanalyse im Rahmen von BIM am Beispiel der Laserlaborerweiterung am Forschungszentrum DESY in Hamburg-Bahrenfeld]1 Student project 2021
Integral building documentation using an as-built models by example of the building project Siemens Campus in Erlangen [Holistische Gebäudedokumentation mithilfe eines As-built-Modells am Beispiel des Siemens Campus in Erlangen]1 Master thesis 2021
Automated planning of broadband infrastructure PhD thesis 2020
Analysis of metamodeling approaches for describing monitoring-related information Master thesis 2020
Virtual reality (VR) experiences of IFC-based wastewater treatment plant models Master thesis 2020
Evaluating thermal changes in the indoor environment of glass-façade office buildings affected by climate change Master thesis 2020
Virtual operationalization of a programmable logic controller in OpenModelica [Virtuelle Inbetriebnahme einer speicherprogrammierbaren Steuerung in OpenModelica] Master thesis 2020
Virtual reality experiences of IFC-based wastewater treatment plant models Master thesis 2020
IFC-based construction scheduling for wastewater treatment plants Master thesis 2020
BIM-based generation of digital twins for dams [BIM-basierte Generierung von digitalen Zwillingen für Talsperren] Bachelor thesis 2020
Sensor technologies and Internet of Things as Smart City components [Sensorik und Internet der Dinge als Bestandteile von Smart City] Bachelor thesis 2020
Additive manufacturing in civil engineering: Slicing supported by building information modeling Student project 2020
Implementation and field validation of a wireless structural health monitoring system Student project 2020
Analysis of digital technologies for clay constructions[Analyse zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien im Lehmbau]1 Bachelor thesis 2020
Analysis of the potential of combining building information modeling and rehabilitation planning by the example of an indoor swimming pool [Analyse von Einsatzmöglichkeiten der Methode BIM im Rahmen von Instandsetzungsplanungen am Beispiel eines Hallen- und Wellenbades]1 Bachelor thesis 2020
BIM-based structural analysis of a railroad bridge structure in Hamburg-Alsterdorf [BIM-basierte Tragwerksberechnung eines bestehenden Eisenbahn-Brückenbauwerks in Hamburg-Alsterdorf]1 Student project 2020
Data exchange analysis of highly detailed steel connections within building information modeling [Datenaustausch-Analyse hochdetaillierter Stahlbau-Anschlüsse im Rahmen von Building Information Modeling]1 Master thesis 2020
Conceptual design of a BIM-based communication and management platform for Deutsche Bahn construction projects to advance collaboration [Konzeptionierung einer Kommunikations- und Management-Plattform für Bauprojekte der DB im Rahmen von BIM zur Verbesserung der kollaborativen Zusammenarbeit]1 Master thesis 2020
Implementing and analyzing BIM key attributes within the renovation of the old canal lock in Kiel Holtenau [Programmierung und Analyse zentraler BIM-Attribute im Zuge der Grundinstandsetzung der Alten Schleuse Kiel-Holtenau]1 Master thesis 2020
Opportunities of the construction industry of combining cradle to cradle (C2C) and building information modeling (BIM) [Nutzungspotenziale der Bauwirtschaft durch Kombination des Prinzips Cradle to Cradle (C2C) mit der Methode Building Information Modeling (BIM)]1 Bachelor thesis 2020
Scan-to-BIM – Status quo and opportunities of building surveys [Scan-to-BIM – Status quo und Potenziale im Rahmen von Bauaufnahmen]1 Bachelor thesis 2020
Hydraulic calculation of pipe and channel flows in Modelica [Hydraulische Berechnung von Rohr- und Gerinneströmungen in Modelica] Student project 2019
From requirements anaysis to IFC extension: Design of a BIM model pipeline [Von der Anforderung zur IFC-Erweiterung: Entwurf einer BIM Modellpipeline] Bachelor thesis 2019
An explainable artificial intelligence model coupling deep learning and blockchain technology Bachelor thesis 2019
A semantic model for 3D concrete printing Master thesis 2019
Real-time wireless structural control using semi-active tuned liquid column dampers Master thesis 2019
Development of standardized data formats for BIM-based design of wastewater treatment plants [Entwicklung standardisierter Datenformate für den BIM-basierten Entwurf von Kläranlagen] Student project 2019
Application of blockchain in civil engineering: Blockchain based SHM network analysis Student project 2019
An approach for fault identification using analytical redundancy in wireless structural health monitoring systems Student project 2019
Practice-oriented analysis of BIM execution plans in building construction [Praxisnahe Analyse von BIM-Abwicklungsplänen aus Bereichen des Hochbaus]1 Student project 2019
Synthesis of autonomous construction machines in cyber-physical systems combined with building information modeling [Synthese autonomer Baumaschinen in cyberphysischen Systemen auf Grundlage der Methode des Building Information Modeling]1 Master thesis 2019
Comparison of conventional quantity determination and BIM-supported quantity calculation using a mixed-use building [Vergleichsbetrachtungen einer konventionellen Massenermittlung gegenüber einer BIM-gestützten Mengenberechnung am Beispiel eines Gebäudes mit gemischter Nutzung]1 Student project 2019
Implementation of an algorithm for calculating productivity losses during construction by the example of the Axel Springer Quartier in Hamburg [Programmierung eines Algorithmus zur Berechnung von Produktivitätsverlusten während der Bauausführung am Beispiel des Axel Springer Quartiers in Hamburg]1 Student project 2019
Analysis of BIM-related software applications for structural calculations based on discontinuity areas in solid structures [Analyse BIM-relevanter Software für die Tragwerksplanung am Beispiel von Diskontinuitätsbereichen im Massivbau]1 Bachelor thesis 2019
Data exchange analysis during construction work based on different software applications [Analyse von Datenaustausch-Szenarien während der Bauausführung anhand ausgewählter Software-Applikationen]1 Master thesis 2019
Interface analysis of IFC-Data exchange during the calculation phases of an office building [Schnittstellen-Analyse eines IFC-Datenaustauschs während der Angebots- und Kalkulationsphase für ein Bürogebäude]1 Master thesis 2019
Analysis of compensations for design execution processes within building information modeling [Analyse zur Vergütung von Planungs- und Ausführungs-leistungen im Rahmen von Building Information Modeling]1 Master thesis 2019
Analysis of role definitions in the context of BIM by international comparison [Analyse von Rollenzuweisungen im Rahmen von BIM im internationalen Vergleich]1 Bachelor thesis 2019
Integral object and structural design by the example of a mixed-use building as part of a building information modeling process [Integrale Objekt- und Tragwerksplanung am Beispiel eines Gebäudes mit gemischter Nutzung im Rahmen von BIM]1 Master thesis 2019
Implementing an algorithm for crane utilization considering productivity loss during construction work [Programmierung eines Prognose-Algorithmus für Kranauslastungen unter Berücksichtigung von Produktivitätsverlusten während der Bauausführung]1 Master thesis 2019
Analysis of metamodeling approaches for describing monitoring-related information Master thesis 2018
Parametric bridge design using building information modeling [Parametrisierter Brückenentwurf im Kontext des Building Information Modelung] Bachelor thesis 2018
Geometric algorithms for computing outside surfaces using building information models [Geometrische Algorithmen zur Bestimmung von Außenflächen auf der Basis von Bauwerksinformationsmodellen] Student project 2018
Comparative study of experimentally tested tuned liquid column dampers Student project 2018
Application fields and trends of mixed reality in construction site operations combined with building information modeling [Anwendungsgebiete und Tendenzen von Mixed Reality bei Baustellenarbeitsprozessen in Verbindung mit Building Information Modeling]1 Bachelor thesis 2018
Practical analysis of RFID-technology through real time scenarios of a civil engineering construction site [Praxisnahe Analyse zur Verwendung der RFID-Technologie am Beispiel von Echtheit-Szenarien einer Tiefbaustelle]1 Student project 2018
Aspects of building contractors for smart homes and smart living combined with building information modeling [Aspekte bauausführender Gewerke für Smart Homes und Smart Living in Kombination mit Building Information Modeling]1 Bachelor thesis 2018
Digital formwork planning combined with building information modeling [Digitale Schalungsplanung in Kombination mit der Methode des Building Information Modeling]1 Bachelor thesis 2018
Integration of virtual reality into engineering processes combined with building information modeling [Einbindung von Virtual Reality in ingenieurtechnische Planungsprozesse unter Berücksichtigung der Methode des Building Information Modeling]1 Bachelor thesis 2018
Analysis of IFC-based BIM software interfaces in construction management [Analyse der Schnittstellenproblematik von BIM-Software aus Bereichen des Baubetriebs unter besonderer Betrachtung des IFC-Austauschformats]1 Master thesis 2018
Fields of application and trends of augmented reality in construction cite operations combined with building information modeling[Anwendungsgebiete und Tendenzen von Augmented Reality bei Baustellenarbeitsprozessen in Kombination mit der Methode des Building Information Modeling]1 Bachelor thesis 2018
Application fields and potential utilization of automatic identification for on-site operations combined with building information modeling [Anwendungsgebiete und Nutzungsmöglichkeiten von Auto-Identifikationstechniken bei Baustellenarbeitsprozessen in Kombination mit Building Information Modeling]1 Master thesis 2018
Comparison of conventional planning and execution processes with building information modeling using examples of existing construction projects [Vergleich konventioneller Planungs- und Ausführungsprozesse gegenüber der Methode BIM anhand von Beispielen bereits ausgeführter Bauvorhaben]1 Student project 2018
Processes of data transfer for building information modeling by the example of computer-aided facility management (CAFM) in a hospital [Prozesse der Datenübergabe an Gebäudeinformationsmodelle am Beispiel des Computer Aided Facility Managements (CAFM) eines Krankenhauses]1 Bachelor thesis 2018
Allocation of BIM attributes for designing the F246 bridge structure (pedestrian bridge Ebner-Eschenbach-Weg / Allermöher Hauptfleet) in Hamburg-Allermöhe [BIM-relevante Attributzuweisungen für eine Bemessung des Brückenbauwerks F246 (Fußgängerbrücke Ebner-Eschenbach-Weg / Allermöher Hauptfleet) in Hamburg-Allermöhe]1 Student project 2018
Analysis and extension of prognosis models for calculating the energy demand in the housing sector [Analyse und Erweiterung von bestehenden Prognosemodellen zur Bestimmung des Endenergiebedarfs im Wohnungssektor] PhD thesis 2017
Automated fault detection and isolation in structural health monitoring systems for road bridges Master thesis 2017
BIM-based description of wastewater treatment plants [BIM-basierte Abbildung von abwassertechnischen Anlagen] Master thesis 2017
Embedded stochastic subspace identification for operational modal analysis in wireless structural health monitoring systems Master thesis 2017
BIM-based design of SHM-related processes and algorithms Master thesis 2017
Development of a modular wireless structural health monitoring system Special project 2017
A wireless sensor network for structural health monitoring Special project 2017
Structural health monitoring using wireless sensor networks Special project 2017
Collaborative modal identification in wireless structural health monitoring systems Special project 2017
A wireless structural health monitoring system with embedded system identification capabilities Student project 2017
BIM-based modeling of structural health monitoring systems using the IFC standard Master thesis 2016
Added values of introducing BIM data in computer-aided facility management [Mehrwerte der Verwendung von Daten aus Bauwerksinformationsmodellen im Computer-Aided Facility Management] Master thesis 2016
Cost-saving potentials through BIM in the operation stage of buildings [Kosteneinsparpotentiale durch BIM in der Gebäudenutzungsphase Master thesis 2016
Aspects of parametric-geometric modeling – a method for developing building information models [Aspekte der parametrisch-geometrischen Modellierung – eine Arbeitsweise zum Erstellen von Bauwerksinformationsmodellen] Bachelor thesis 2016
How comes the problem into the game? [Wie kommt das Problem ins Spiel?] PhD thesis 2016
Automated condition assessment of civil infrastructure using wireless sensor networks Special project 2016
Autonomous fault detection in wireless structural health monitoring systems using decentralized neural networks Master thesis 2015
Rule-based quality assessment of building information models using industry foundation classes [Regelbasierte Prüfung der Modellqualität von Bauwerksinformationsmodellen auf Basis der Industry Foundation Classes] Master thesis 2015
Algorithm for calculating flight paths for unmanned aerial vehicles based on building information models [Algorithmus zur Routenberechnung für unbemannte Fluggeräte auf der Basis von Bauwerksinformationsmodellen] Bachelor thesis 2015
Visual coupling of sensor data with building information models based on Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) [Visuelle Kopplung von Sensordaten mit Bauwerksinformationsmodellen auf Basis der Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)] Bachelor thesis 2015
Automated detailing of 4D schedules PhD thesis 2014
Automated integration of heterogeneous structural health monitoring data Student project 2014
Integration heterogener Datenmengen aus Bauwerksüberwachungssystemen Student project 2014
Development of data collection and data processing modules for wireless structural health monitoring systems Special project 2014
A modular structural health monitoring system for wireless strain measurements Special project 2014
Integrating state-of-the-art strain gauges into wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications Special project 2014
A comparative study of wireless sensor nodes available for structural health monitoring applications Special project 2014
Application of building information models in construction management Special project 2014
An Internet-enabled Multi-sensor System for Continuous Monitoring of Landslide Processes Master thesis 2013
A Wireless Environment Monitoring System for Ground Motion Detection based on Collective Intelligence Bachelor thesis 2011
Lifetime Assessment of Wind Turbines [Lebensdauerabschätzung von Windenergieanlagen] Undergraduate research project 2011
Decentralized Structural Health Monitoring based on Hybrid Agent Systems [Verteilte Bauwerksüberwachung auf der Basis hybrider Agentensysteme] Diploma thesis 2010
Development of Self-Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring based on Emergent Behavior Master thesis 2009
Design of E-Learning Software for the Automated Creation of Self-Learning Exercises as an Interactive Extension of a CAD System [Entwicklung einer E-Learning-Software als interaktive Erweiterung für ein CAD-System zur automatisierten Erstellung von Selbstlernaufgaben] Undergraduate research project 2009
Implementation and Evaluation of Graphical Interaction Components for Modeling and Simulation of 2-Epoch-Buildings [Implementierung und Evaluierung von graphischen Interaktionskomponenten zur Modellierung und Simulation von Zwei-Epochen-Bauwerken] Undergraduate research project 2009
Development of a Modeling Logic for Interactive Construction and Visualization of Complex Engineering Structures by the Example of 2-Epoch-Buildings [Entwicklung einer Modellierungslogik für die interaktive Erstellung und Visualisierung komplexer Tragstrukturen am Beispiel von Zwei-Epochen-Bauwerken] Undergraduate research project 2009
Development of Efficient Algorithms for Automated Generation of Design Drawings based on Heterogeneous Data Sets [Entwicklung effizienter Algorithmen zur automatisierten Generierung von Konstruktionszeichnungen basierend auf heterogenen Datenbeständen] Undergraduate research project 2009
CAD-based Adaptive Modeling of 2-Epoch-Buildings for Cross-medial Representation [Adaptive CAD-Modellierung von 2-Epochen-Bauwerken zur cross-medialen Repräsentation] Graduate seminar project 2009
A CAD-based Software System for Time-discrete Progress Simulation of the Erection of Office Buildings under Consideration of Economic Boundary Conditions [Entwicklung eines CAD-basierten Softwaresystems zur zeitdiskreten Simulation des Baufortschritts für Bürogebäude unter Berücksichtigung ökonomischer Randbedingungen] Bachelor thesis 2009
Development of an E-Tutor for CAD courses [Entwicklung eines E-Tutors für CAD-Kurse] Undergraduate research project 2009
A Graphical Interaction Component for Planning the Destruction of Civil Engineering Buildings [Entwicklung einer graphischen Interaktionskomponente zur Planung von Bauwerkssprengungen] Undergraduate research project 2008
CAD-supported Destruction Planning for Office Buildings [CAD-gestützte Planung zur Destruktion von Bürogebäuden in Massivbauweise] Graduate seminar project 2008
5-dimensional Progress Simulation of Erecting Office Buildings [5D-Fortschrittssimulation der Erstellung von Bürogebäuden in Modulbauweise] Graduate seminar project 2007
Design and JAVA-based Implementation of a Probabilistic Prognosis Model for the Assessment of Structural Damage using Markov Chain Theory Master thesis 2007
Development of a Graphical User Interface for Automatically Computing and Visualizing Tunneling Projects [Entwicklung einer graphischen Benutzungsschnittstelle für CAD-Applikationen zur automatisierten Darstellung von Tunnelprojekten] Undergraduate research project 2006
A CAD-based Application for the Automated Visualization of Tunnels in Variably Layered Geology [Entwicklung einer CAD-Applikation zur automatischen Visualisierung von Tunneln in beliebig geschichteter Geologie] Graduate seminar project 2006
Development of an Agent-based Data Acquisition Application for Mobile Devices Master thesis 2006
Development and Evaluation of a Generic Interaction Component as a Platform-independent Presentation Layer for Engineering Applications [Entwicklung und Evaluierung einer generischen Interaktionskomponente als plattformunabhängige Präsentationsschicht für Ingenieuranwendungen] Diploma thesis 2005
Automated Planning and Design of Sewage Plants [Automatisierte Planung und Bemessung von Kläranlagen] Graduate seminar project 2005
Evaluation and Application of Data Mining Techniques [Evaluierung und Anwendung etablierter Data Mining-Verfahren zur Auswertung von Datenbeständen] Undergraduate research project 2005
Computer-aided Processing of Complex Engineering Projects [Computergestützte Bearbeitung komplexer Bauprojekte] Undergraduate research project 2004
Interactive, CAD-based Design of Multifunctional Stadiums [Interaktive, CAD-gestützte Planung von Multifunktionsarenen] Seminar project 2004
Development of a Software Agent for the Administration of Complex Data in Civil Engineering [Entwicklung eines Software-Agenten zur Verwaltung komplexer Datenbestände aus dem Bauwesen] Diploma thesis 2004
Development of a Knowledge-based System for Data Analysis in the Context of Structural Health Monitoring [Entwicklung eines wissensbasierten Systems zur Analyse von Messdaten aus dem Bauwerksmonitoring] Diploma thesis 2003
Interactive, CAD-based Design of Rope Bridges [Interaktive, CAD-gestützte Planung von Schrägseilbrücken] Graduate seminar project 2003

1These theses and projects have been supervised by Dr. Kölzer at the Institute of Materials, Physics and Chemistry for Buildings at Hamburg University of Technology (Professor Schmidt-Döhl).