Marine Casualty Simulations

The Sinking Sequence of COSTA CONCORDIA

On January, 13th, 2012, the cruise vessel COSTA CONCORDIA collided with a rock close to the isle of Giglio, Italy. The ship got a five compartment damage on port side and was immediately flooded. Due to cross flooding, she took an upright position after the initial port side heel. Water ingressed into starboard side trough opened or not fully closed doors, which lead to a starboard side heel. This starboard side heel increased unit she hit the ground and tipped fully over. Our simulation shows the sinking sequence from the collision until she hits the ground.

Literature

  • Russel, P.: The Sinking Sequence of M.V. Costa Concordia. Masterarbeit, TU Hamburg- Harburg, 2013
  • Dankowski, Hendrik: A Fast and Explicit Method for Simulating Flooding and Sinkage Scenarios of Ships. Dissertation, TU Hamburg- Harburg, 2013
  • Federal Bureau of Marine Casualty Investigations (BSU): Press Release 18/15. www.bsu-bund.de

The Capsizing Sequence of HERALD OF FREE ENTERPRISE

On March 6, 1987, the passenger ferry Herald of Free Enterprize capsized when leaving the port of Zeebruges, Belgium. The ship sailed with a significant forward trim as it was not designed for loading operations in Zeebruges port. At the time of the accident, the bow door of the ship was open. Due to the fast speed in shallow water the bow wave was high and the vessel dynamically trimmed bow down. Water accumulated on the vehicle deck until the stability of the ship vanished and she capsized after she floated with abt. 30 Deg. list for a while. When the list reached 95 Deg, she hit the sea bead in the shallow water and remained in that position. 186 lives were lost during the accident. The accident investigations indicated that the ship`s draft may have been larger as permitted for the number of people possibly carried on board. As a consequence of that accident, a trim must be included in the damage stability calculations if that trim is significant. Our simulation shows the capsizing of the ferry until she hits the sea bead at Zeebruges.

Literature

  • Souflis, L.: Untersuchung des Sinkvorganges der RoPax- Fähre Herald of Free Enterprize. Bachelor-Arbeit, TU Hamburg, 2017
  • Department of Transport, MV Herald of Free Enterprise, Report of Court 8074, London: Crown 1987

The Sinking Sequence of HERAKLION

On December 7, 1966, the passenger ferry SS HERAKLION sank close to the Greek island Milos. The cargo on the vehicle deck was not correctly lashed, especially one reefer truck which was taken on board prior to the departure in the port of Chania. The HERAKLON sailed in strong stern quartering seas and wind of abt. 8-10 BFT. Due to the (parametric) rolling motion cargo shifted, and the unsecured reefer truck pushed the side door to the vehicle deck open. Water accumulated on the vehicle deck, and the static list increased until the vehicle deck became fully submerged. The vessel then capsized rapidly and sank, as water could spread into the ship through unsecured openings. Only 46 of 264 persons could be saved. The accident may be the first accident where floodwater on the vehicle deck played a major role. Our simulation shows the sinking sequence (without seakeeping motions) after the vehicle deck was submerged.

Literature

  • Teuscher, C.: Technische Untersuchung des Seeunfalles von SS HERAKLION unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des dynamischen Verhaltens im Seegang. Bachelor-Arbeit, TU Hamburg-Harburg, 2011
  • Dankowski, H.: A Fast and Explicit Method for Simulating Flooding and Sinkage Scenarios of Ships. Dissertation, TU Hamburg-Harburg, 2013
  • Krüeger, S., Dankowski, H., Teuscher, C.: Numerical Investigations of the Capsizing Sequence of SS HERAKLION. STAB 2012, Athen, Griechenland.
  • Papanikolau, A., Boulougouris, E., Sklavenitis, A.: Investigation into the sinking of the RoRo Passenger Ferry S.S. HERAKLION. STAB 2012, Athen, Griechenland.

The Capsizing Sequence of the EUROPEAN GATEWAY

On December 19th, 1982, the passenger ferry EUROPEAN GATEWAY capsized close to the port of Harwich, UK, after a collision with the ferry SPEEDLINK VAGUARD. The bulbous bow of the VANGUARD opened the shell of the GATEWAY on starboard side, and the auxiliary engine room was flooded. The water could not immediately spread to the port side due to hydraulic blockage of the machinery, and the vessel listed substantially to starboard. As the stem of the VANGUARD opened also the vehicle deck above the waterline, the vehicle deck became submerged due to the list and water entered into the vehicle deck through the open shell. The GATEAWAY then capsized rapidly to starboard side until she hit the seabed. Six persons lost their live during the accident, one was missing. As a consequence of the accident, the regulations require that intermediate stages of flooding need to be computed during damage stability investigation to ensure that final equilibrium floating position is actually reached. Our simulation shows the capsizing of the ship after the damage until she hits the seabed.

Literature:

  • Spouge, J. R.: The Technical Investigation of the Sinking of the Roro-Ferry EUROPEAN GAETWAY. Transaction RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects:24, 1985
  • Dankowski, H.: A Fast and Explicit Method for Simulating Flooding and Sinkage Scenarios of Ships. Dissertation, TU Hamburg-Harburg, Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, Report No. 668, 2013

The Sinking sequence of RMS TITANIC

On April 14, 1912 the passenger vessel RMS TITANIC collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic. due to the collision, water slowly entered into the six fore compartments. As the ship had not a freebord deck to which the watertight bulkheads extended, water could flow over the watertight transversal bulkheads into undamaged compartments due the trim by bow increased gradually. This led to the flooding of further compartments while the forward trim increased. During the final stage of the sinking after 2½ hrs, the vessel broke into two parts due to the large trim. 1514 lives were lost during the accident, although the ship floated upright for quite a long time. As a consequence of the accident, an international conference on ship safety was initiates in 1913 which finally lead to the SOLAS regulations, which are in force still today. Our simulation shows the sinking of the TITANIC from the collision until she broke into two parts. Our simulation has shown that TITANIC might have capsized after the superstructure was flooded if the floodwater would have not been obstructed by the side walls of the passage ways in the accommodation.

Literature

  • Dankowski, H.: A Fast and Explicit Method for Simulating Flooding and Sinkage Scenarios of Ships. Dissertation, TU Hamburg-Harburg, Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, Report No. 668, 2013

The capsizing sequence of SEWOL

On April 16, 2014 the RoPax Ferry SEWOL capsized close the island Jindo in South Korea. During the time of the accident, 447 Passengers and 29 crew members were on board. Accident investigations which performed later on behalf of the Korean authorities showed that the ship had been overloaded and the stability was reduced. Due to large rudder angles at high speeds and the reduced stability, the ferry listed to about 20 degrees. This led to a shifting of cargo which increased the list. In this stage, a door into the vehicle deck became submerged, and water entered into the vehicle deck which spread through the ship. Due to the water ingress, the list increased until she finally sank. Only 174 persons survived the accident. Our simulation shows the sinking process of the SEWOL after the cargo has shifted.

Literature

  • Bley, M.: Untersuchungen zum Sinkvorgang der RoPax-Fähre SEWOL. TU Hamburg-Harburg, Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, Report A-88, Februar 2016
  • Lee, Gyeyong J.: Flow Model for Modelling Simulation of a Damaged Ship. Proc. 12th STAB, Glasgow, 2015.

The Sinking Sequence of VINCA GORTHON

On the afternoon of February 28th, 1988, the RoRo-Vessel VINCA GORTHON capsized close to the Terschellinger Bank, Netherlands. The VINCA GORTHON was loaded with 170 MODU-Trailers and sailed with a GM of 0.75m. During the building process of the ship it was suspected that the stability of the ship might have been on the low side. During the time of the accident, the VINCA took the sea abeam from the starboard side. Wind was about 8-10 Bft with waves of abt. 4-5m height. The VINCA was rolling moderately, when suddenly the imperfectly secured cargo shifted and she took a list of abt. 20 Degree, which increased to abt. 35 Degree after further cargo has shifted. During an unsecured opening, water entered into the steering gear compartment due to the action of the waves. Through an open door, the water could spread into the vehicle deck. So the list of the VINCA gradually increased until she then sank on February, 29th, about 07.30. Our simulation shows the sinking sequence of the VINCA when she had already a list of 35 Degree. The animated waves do not reflect the real sea state, they only serve to drive water through the opening into the steering gear compartment. But the sinking sequence is correctly shown until she finally vanishes.

Literature

  • Schröder, C.: Numerical Investigation of the capsizing of the Ro-Ro vessel VINCA GORTHON, TU Hamburg-Harburg, Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, Bachelour Thesis, 2012
  • Wöller, M.: Numerical Investigation of the Flooding and Sinking Scenario of the RoRo-Vessel VINCA GORTHON., TU Hamburg-Harburg, Schriftenreihe Schiffbau, Report A152, October 2019
  • Marine Accident Report concerning the heeling and capsizing of the Swedish-flagged Ro-Ro ship VINCA GORTHON in the North Sea on February 28, 1988. Swedish Maritime Investigation Commission, September 1989.